Reflects of Humanism in the Quatrains of Omar Khayyam and Heidegger's Existentialism. Tahereh Jaberizadeh.
World Journal of Islamic History and Civilization, Vol. 3 (2013), Nr. 3, pp. 92-100.
History of literature and philosophical and social movements in Iran, shows that the humanism in Persian literature is protest reflection to the theocentrism and religious radicalism also letdown of intelligent and aware minority because of social situation. Khayyam lived in the age and territory that the most of time was the arena of war and genocide; the centuries were the ages of religious dominant and dogmatism also increasing the number of religious schools that spread the religious knowledge, canonist and dogmatism. As a comparison, Europe society in Heidegger era also is important from the aspect of social, political and religion. Increasing the inflation and economic crisis after the First World War became the main causes to appear and spread totalitarian thoughts and fascism during the 1933-1945 in the Germany. In an epoch which human’s soul located in the position of object because of social, political conditions and religious superiority as well as human ruling, Khayyam’s humanistic view is result of his subjective attitude that is perceptible from his philosophical epistle and other logical works also is result of the religion dogmatism and hegemony, theocentrism instead of attention to human and his mundane needs. He versified about the human while destiny was against of his desire and the human life and wisdom was the victim of the religion hegemony, Seljuk wars, genocide and pillage in the Khorasan. By tracing the social situation in Khayyam era and Heidegger period in Europe, this survey tries to illustrate the part of humanistic concept in quatrains then compare it with Martin Heidegger’s definition of humanism and some of similarity and distinctions in existentialism.